Modal YSTR Haplotypes For Each Claimed Subgroup of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup G (as of 07-May-2005)

 

 

 

 

3

3

 

3

3

3

4

3

4

3

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

 

YC

YC

4

6

5

5

C

C

4

4

 

 

 

9

9

1

9

8

8

2

8

3

8

9

8

5

5

5

5

5

4

3

4

4

6

6

6

6

6

6

H

A1

A1

5

0

7

7

D

D

4

3

ref

n

mod

3

0

9

1

5a

5b

6

8

9

9i

2

9ii

8

9a

9b

5

4

7

7

8

9

4a

4b

4c

4d

4e

0

4

1a

1b

6

7

6

0

Ya

Yb

2

8

1

72

G

14

22

15

10

14

14

11

13

11

12

11

29

16

9

9

11

11

23

16

21

28

12

13

13

14

14

11

11

20

20

15

13

18

17

36

37

11

10

1

52

G2

14

22

15

10

14

14

11

13

11

12

11

29

16

9

9

11

11

23

16

21

30

12

13

13

14

14

10

11

20

20

15

13

15

18

37

38

11

10

2

11

G2

14

22

15

10

 

 

11

12

12

12

11

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,2,3,4

110

G2

14

22

15

10

14

14

11

12

11

12

11

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

44

G2*

14

21

15

10

 

 

 

12

11

12

11

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3,4

6

G2a

14

22

15

10

 

 

11

13

11

12

10

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

1

G2a1

14

22

15

10

16

16

11

12

12

12

10

31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

G2b

15

22

15

10

 

 

 

12

12

13

11

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

8

G3

13

22

15

10

 

 

 

12

11

12

10

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

G1*

15

23

15

11

 

 

 

12

11

12

12

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

1

G1

13

24

14

10

13

14

11

12

11

12

12

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

4

G1a

13

23

15

10

 

 

 

12

13

13

12

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

34

GxG2

13

23

15

10

 

 

11

12

12

14

11

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

1

G*

13

23

16

10

 

 

 

12

11

13

11

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*In the above table, "ref" = references from which data obtained to calculate each modal.  Specifically, "1" is www.Ysearch.org, "2" is Behar et al. (Hum. Genet., 2004, 114:354-365), "3" is Cinnioglu et al. (Hum Genet., 2004, 114:127-148), and "4" is Butler et al., and "n" is the number of haplotypes used from these references to calculate the modals ("mod") at each DYS#.  A schematic showing the SNPs that define each subgroup of haplogroup G is shown at Whit Athey's haplogroup G website.   GxG2 means that the person tested positive for G (M201), but not G2 (P15).

 

Synopsis

        The G and G2 modals from FTDNA (Ysearch.org) are no doubt biased towards people of Western European descent although the pre-genealogical origin of these Gs is likely heterogeneous.  In contrast, the modals reported in the Behar publication are for people of Ashkenazi Jewish descent and the modals found in the Cinnioglu paper are from individuals of the area of Anatolia (primarily Turkey).  Thus, a comparison of the haplogroup G modals from these two publications provides some insight regarding the pre-genealogical origin of Gs found in Western Europe.  A more detailed analysis of G haplotypes in the areas of Southwest Russia and Kazakhstan should provide further vital clues regarding the very early origin of Gs in Europe.

          From the modals shown in the above table, it is clear that GxG2 and G2 are distinguished at DYS390 and DYS 393.  Interestingly, these two loci are critical for distinguishing the ethnic origins of R1b and I1a.  In the case of haplogroup G, a DYS393-DYS390 combination of 14-22 is by far the most abundant found in the FTDNA database that is primarily comprised of Gs found in Western Europe.   In fact, this 14-22 combination is the overwhelming modal for all G2s found in the above 4 references, so one can conclude that most Gs in Western Europe are G2s.   In contrast, the DYS393-DYS390 modals for GxG2 are 13-23.   Both G1 and G2 can be further distinguished by comparing DYS389i and DYS389ii.  In the case of GxG2, the modal for this combo is 14-32 and for G2 it is 12-29.  A more detailed statistical comparison will be found later at this website.  The Behar publication shows that Ashkenazi Jews are about 3-fold more likely to belong to GxG2 than G2, whereas, Cinnioglu showed that Anatolians are about 9-fold more likely to belong to G2 than GxG2. 

          It is also noteworthy that the FTDNA modal at DYS390 is 22 repeats, whereas Cinnioglu found primarily 21 repeats at DYS390, but other than that, Western European G2s cannot be easily distinguished (yet) from Anatolian G2s.  Nonetheless, this difference at DYS390 might provide a starting point for distinguishing Western European and Anatolian G2s.

The last thing I'd like to point out for now is that the Jewish G2s in Behar are strongly distinguished from the FTDNA G2s at DYS 439.  All of Behar's G2s have a value of 12 or higher at DYS439, whereas, the overwhelming majority of Gs (G2s) found at ysearch.org (FTDNA) have a value of 11 at DYS439.  This observation might therefore provide a starting point for distinguishing Israelite (or Middle Eastern) G2s from Western European G2s.